Two descendants of Manuel Francisco, Adelina Ortiz de Hill and daughter Claire at Las Golondrinas, the property of Manuel Francisco and his family.

The son of Antonio de Molina Delgado and Juana Xaviera de Chavarria Butron, Manuel Francisco Delgado joined the military in 1761. His military duties eventually brought him to El Paso, where he married Maria Josefa Garcia de Noriega (whose birthdate is given as 1767) at Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe in El Paso on March 22, 1779. This is evident from the El Paso church's marriage documents, the El Paso Diligencia Matrimonial of December 5, 1778, the Guide to the 1788 and 1790 El Paso censuses, and the New Mexico Colonial Patriots published on the Internet.

In a document bearing the date August 6, 1778 found in the New Mexico State Archives, Don Teodoro de Croix, Governador and Commandante General de las Provincias internas de Nueva España granted Don Manuel Delgado, the Teniente del Presidio de Aguaverde, permission to contract marriage with Doña Maria Garcia de Noriega, resident of the Pueblo del Paso del Norte.

In a document bearing the date December 5, 1778 found in the New Mexico State Archives, Manuel Francisco explained that he Don Manuel Delgado, Teniente of the Presidio of Agua Verde, legitimate child of Don Antonio Delgado y de Doña Juana Xaviera Chavarria, deceased, and residents of Real de Pachuca, to serve God better, and save his soul negotiated and agreed to contract marriage with Doña Maria Josepha Garcia, legitimate daughter of the Captain of the Militia, Don Joseph Garcia de Noriega and of Doña Rosalia Velarde Cosio, natives and residents of his Town of Our Lady of Guadalupe of El Paso del Rio del Norte, for which reason he was solemnly requesting the permission.

The diligencia matrimonial (pre-nuptial investigation record) from the church of Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe, El Paso del Norte, dated December 5, 1778 is for don Manuel Delgado, Teniente of the Presidio of Agua Verde, the legitimate son of don Antonio Delgado and doña Juana Xaviera Chavarría, both deceased citizens of the Real de Pachuca, and doña María Josepha García de Noriega, legitimate daughter of Captain Of the Militia don Joseph García de Noriega and doña Rosalía Velarde Cosio, native and citizen of El Paso. (Catholic Archives of Texas 3: 780, only a fragment of the DM survives).

Military papers available in the New Mexico State Archives, provide this information about the military career of Don Manuel Delgado of Real de Pachuca of New Spain, noble, in good health:

1761, enlisted in the Dragoons of Mexico as soldado.

1767, he was Cavo, Dragoons of Mexico

1768, Sargento, Dragoons of Mexico

1774, Alferez de Cavalleria, del Real Presidio de San Fernando del Carrizal

1778, Teniente de Cavalleria del Real Presidio de San Elceario

I have photocopies of three documents, 1776, 1778, 1780, all of which basically give the same years for these positions, but the exacts days and months vary. The 1776 document informs that in the Compania de Infanteria de la Guardia del Real Palacio and in the Regimento de Dragones de Mexico, he had enjoyed the satisfaction of his superiors, manifesting zeal and love of royal service in everything. It also tells how on June 3, 1775 he attacked an increased number of the enemy in place called de las Salinas with a small party of 22 men and was would in the lower part of his right shoulder blade. The later documents say that it was 50 enemies and 28 individuals. In 1776, with 50 men, he attacked the enemy in the Sierra de la Acha, taking 9 horses from them. In July 1777, in the place called la Canada de la Calaveras, with 7 soldiers and 2 peasants he fought 36 of the enemy.

He, of course, was promoted to Santa Fe.

The 1790 census of the presidio of Santa Fe, lists him in second place after Governor Don Fernando de la Concha. The entry reads: Don Manuel Delgado, 1st Lieutenant, native of Pachuca, 51; wife Doña Josefa Garcia de Noriega, Spanish, 23; 2 sons, 5, 1; daughter 11; 4 servants: male, Spanish, 45; his wife 30; their daughers: 18, 9; male, mulatto, 20; his wife, 18; male, I, 22; male, Spanish, 20; female, Indian, 10; female coyote, 8.

Manuel's and Maria Josefa's daughter would be Estefana and the sons Marcos and Fernando.

1791, Manuel Francisco retired from the military and went into business and politics.

He was elected Alcade de primer eleccion in 1798 and de segundo voto in 1800.

Manuel Francisco's wife Maria Josefa died May 9, 1811 in Santa Fe. According to the New Mexico Marriages of Santa Fe and the Military Chapel of Our Lady of Light p. 140, he married Ana Maria Baca (b.1788-1791?) in Santa Fe on November 30, 1814. She was the daughter of Juan Domingo Baca, the older sister of Maria de la Luz Baca who married Manuel Francisco's son Manuel Salustiano.

In her article "Pioneer Merchant" in The Santa Fe Scene of May 17, 1958, Fabiola Cabeza de Baca tells the story this way: When Manuel Salustiano was 22 years old (1814), he decided to be married. He asked his father, Don Manuel Francisco, now retired with the rank of Captain and a widower, to ask for the hand of Doña Ana Maria Baca, daughter of Don Juan Domingo Baca. The old Captain went on the mission, but he like the girl for himself, so he asked for her hand in marriage and solicited the younger sister, Doña Maria de la Luz for his son. The Captain was 76 years old and he lived but one year married to Ana Maria. After his death, she married Don Pedro Bautista Pino, who had been Deputy from New Mexico to the Spanish Cortes. The son, Don Nicolas Pino figured prominently in the history of Santa Fe."

Manuel Francisco's will as found in the New Mexico State Archives lists these five heirs.

Fabiola Cabeza de Baca gives these dates for the birth of the children. Fernando born 1785, Marcos born 1789, Estefana born in 1779, Manuel and Manuela, twins born 1792.

Estefana born December 25, 1779, died 1814, baptized January 5, 1780 at Nuestro Padre Jesus Nazareno, Ojinaca, Chihuahua, more information below; 

Joseph Marcos 1785, died between 1850 and 1855;

Fernando 1789-1821;

Manuel Salustiano (twin) born May 2, 1792, baptized in Nambé/ Pojoaque on June 28, 1792, died 1854.

Manuela (twin) born May 2, in 1792; baptized in Nambé/ Pojoaque, June 28, 1792, more information below.

(A daughter named Josefa who appears on widely circulated Delgado family trees as the wife of Samaniego must really be Maria Josefa de Jesus del Pilar, the daughter of Fernando Delgado and Ana Maria Ortiz, who was born to them on January 25, 1814, married to Florentino Samaniego from Sonora and went to live in El Paso. She had a son Dr Mariano Samaniego. Family trees that leave out Estefana put a Maria Josefa who married Florentino Samaniego must be wrong.)

In his book Las Carneradas, Sheep Trade in New Mexico, 1700-1860 (University of New Mexico Press), John O. Baxter writes of Manuel Francisco's business activities, using documents from the State Archives. Many of these were exchanges between Francisco Carvajal, a Chihuahua wine merchant, whose Santa Fe representative Manuel Delgado was. Baxter decribes Manuel Francisco: "Born in Pachuca just north of Mexico Ciry, Delgado was a veteran of over thirty years of military service, first an an enlisted man with a dragoon regiment, and later as an officer at various northern presidios. During duty in Nueva Vizcaya, he met and married Josefa Garcia de Noriega, an El Paso girl much younger than he, who had important family ties in Chihuahua and New Mexico. While stationed in Santa Fe in 1790, Delgado like the opportunities that he saw there and asked to be mustered out of the army with the rank of capitan retirado on the grounds of failing health. Returned to civilian life, he made a speedy recovery and quickly became recognized as a leader in New Mexico business circles, dealing in local products and goods imported from the south. Acting a Carvajal's agent, he sold large volumes of wine and brandy, which were laboriously carried up the Camino Real on muleback and then retailed to Santa Fe's thirsty citizens. His most frequent patrons included members of the provincial clergy and his former comrades-in-arms, the soldiers of the presidio." "As traders", Baxter continues, "neither Delgado nor Carvajal specialized in livestock, but both handled sheep regularly as part of their business... At his end Carvajal sometimes had trouble selling the odd lots of sheep, stockings, sarapes, and other textiles which Delgado consigned to him.... On April 27th Delgado's daughter Estefana had married Santa Fe blue-blood Juan Rafael Ortiz, who was expected to take over many business responsibilities from his sixty-three year old father-in-law." For the next fourteen years Delgado was able to devote more time to local politics and the management of his extensive rural properties, which included El Rancho de la Golondrinas, located southwest of Santa Fe. He also owned other farms and ranches at Poqoaque, Cuyamungué, Los Cerrillos, and San Miguel del Vado... Las Golondrinas, known throughout the province for its fertile fields and unfailing springs...."

A number of letters written by Manuel Francisco to Francisco Carbajal (1795-1806) are to be found in the New Mexico State Archives. Comparing the names in the letters with the 1803 and 1806 censuses published on José Esquibel's site, Beyond the Origins of New Mexican Families, it seems that this is the Don Francisco Carbajal who lived in the Partido de Barrial in El Paso. In 1803, his wife was listed as Josefa Rodrigues and in the household were Don Francisco Carbajal, José Diego, José Santos, José Maria, Maria Juana and Guadalupe. In 1806, he was a widower and in the household were Doña Maria Juana, Don José Francisco, Don Santos, Don José Maria, Guadalupe, Vicente, José Antonio, José Benito, José Tomas, Guadalupe, Maria de la Luz, Maria Daria. Manuel Francisco addresses Francisco and his wife as compadre and comadre.I suspect that this is because the were in-laws through Manuel Francisco's wife's family.

By the early 1800s Manuel Francisco Delgado had acquired the Las Golondrinas property.

A legal document about the foundation of the Delgado title to the Cerillos grant reads: "It seems almost certain, however, that Manuel Delgado before his death in 1815, acquired the whole of the grant, because so far as it is now to be learned, from that time to the present, the Delgados and their successors in title, have had unbroken and undisturbed possession of the property and no claim has ever been set up by any heirs of Rael de Aguilar. This is consistent only with the belief that Manuel Delgado acquired all the title. There are many people in New Mexico named Rael, proabably all descended from Alonso Rael de Aguilar who was a prominent man and officer of the Spanish Government in the early years of the 18th century... it is entirely proper to proceed upon the theory that Manuel Delgado owned the whole of this grant."

Homer Milford writes in the History of Los Cerrillos Mining Area published on the internet that the Alamo Creek Area, during the post-1692 Spanish period Los Cerrillos, was prime pasturage for the Santa Fe garrison horse herd from at least de Vargas' time to the US conquest in 1846. By early in the 1800s, the two Juana Lopez grants and the two Los Cerrillos grants appear to have been in the hands of just two families, the Delgados and the Pinos, since they seem to be the only ones mentioned in the Alamo Creek area from 1800 to 1879. The Delgados apparently had had the upper holdings, the los Cerrillos and sitio de los Cerrillos Grants. Milford recounts that there is a fragment of a document probably dating from 1805 involving a suit by Manuel Delgado, owner of the the Los Cerrillos ranch against Juan Pino, owner of the lower creek, Rancho of Juana Lopez. Delgado claimed that the latter had dammed up the arroyo and that he, Delgado, had precedence in water rights. This land stayed in the Delgado family until the late 1800s. The Wheeler 1874 expedition map shows the Delgado house location south of Alamo Creek.

Homer Milford situates the Delgado Ranch: Los Cerrillos from the early 1600s to 1879 referred to the valleys north of the Cerrillos Hills close to La Cienega. The new owners of Los Cerrillos changed its name to Bonanza in 1879 as part of their mining promotion. Thus making the name available to a new railroad town built the next year 8 miles to the south. The New town is and has always been "Cerrillos" without the Los. There were two other mining towns in the Cerrillos Hills in the 1880s, but they died and fell to the ground. They were Bonanza and Carbonateville. There is still a ranch house at the springs were the Delgado Ranch (Los Cerrillos Ranch) house was located. There had been houses there since 1695 when Governor De Vargas appointed a mayor for Real de Los Cerrillos. If you get off I-25 at the La Cienega exit, come back south on frontage road for a fraction of a mile, you can take Santa Fe County road 45 east to north 14. On it you will see a sign that says Bonanza Creek Ranch and you can see the house and barns a few thousand feet from the road by the springs. I have never found the exact date of purchase, but that was the Delgado ranch headquarters from about 1804 until it was gradually sold in the 1870s.

In The Eden of La Cienega, a story of early life in La Cienega, a Hispanic village in northern New Mexico, George Cabeza de Baca writes of the Delgado family who owned El Rancho de Las Golondrinas and El Guicu, both of which encompassed most of La Cienega. "La Cienega was divided into arriba (upper), and abajo (lower). In upper La Cienega was located El Alamo and a little further south was Las Golondrinas. Records indicate that Las Golondrinas was established during the early part of the colonialization because it was the last rest stop for the caravans as they made their way from New Spain to Santa Fe. The haciendas which made up La Cienega were La Capilla Vieja, El Ranchito, La Bonanza, El Guicu, El Cañon, and Cieneguilla. The early families of La Cienega were the Delgados, Pinos, Vieras and the Bacas, who settled mostly in upper Cienega, and the Montoyas, Raels, Gallegos and the C' de Bacas in lower Cienega (pp. 10-11).

 A good biography of Manuel Francisco was written by a direct descendent, Edmundo Delgado. It is called "A Spanish Ranker in New Mexico: Captain Manuel Delgado of Santa Fe, 1738-1815" and was published in the New Mexico Historical Review, vol. 66, January 1991, no. 1, pp. 1-15. There are some inaccuracies in it though.

Manuel Francisco died on August 15, 1815 and he is recorded as having been buried at the Castrense on August 31, 1815. Widowed, Ana Maria Baca became the bride of the widower Pedro Bautista Pino in 1816. He had recently returned from Spain, where having been elected New Mexico's delegate to the Cortes de Cadiz he had presented "The Exposition on the Province of New Mexico, 1812, now published by the Rancho de las Golondrinas)

Upon his death, Manuel Francisco owned the family home in Santa and ranches in Pojoaque, Los Cerrillos, Cuyamungue, El Bado and Las Golondrinas. A copy of his will is to be found in the New Mexico State Archives. He left five heirs Juan Rafael Ortiz, the widower of daughter Estefana; Marcos; Fernando; Manuel; and Manuela. He divided up the home in Santa Fe among them. From the estate, Juan Rafael was to share the ranches and houses in Pojoaque and Cuyamungue with Fernando (who also married an Ortiz). Marcos was to share the rancho and house at Las Golondrinas with Manuela. Manuel Salustiano received the ranchos of Los Cerillos and El Bado.

The will also contains a list of 21 works that Manuel Francisco owned. In Literacy, Education, and Society in New Mexico 1693-1821 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press), 1992, the author Bernardo Gallegos lists them on page 59:

La Obra de Carlos V;
Flor Santuoron
(3 vols.);
Practica Criminal;
Teatro Mexicano;
Luz de la Fée;
Color de Escrivanos (2 vols.);
Conquista de Mexico;
Cmaines (?)
Prior de agricultura
Salomon Coronado;
David Perseguido (3 vols.);
Monarquia Hebrea (4 vols.);
3 volumes of
Ordenanzas Militares;
Recopilacion de ord. de Milicias;
Un tomo de
Semana Santa en parte;
Collecion de novelas escogidas (8 volumes);
Voz de la Naturaleza (3 vols.);
Vida de Carlos XII;
Vida de Estevancillo;
Divertimiento del Hacer y noverla
(9 volumes);
Exercicio Cotidiano

The 1821 Santa Fe parish census finds Ana Maria Baca living in the barrio of Torreon. She is 30 years old and married to Pedro Bautista Pino, 66. This would put her birth at around 1791.

The 1823 census finds Ana Maria Baca living in the barrio of Torreon in Santa Fe. She is married to Pedro Bautista Pino who is 69 and Alcade. She is 35. This would put her birth at about 1788.

Estefana Delgado and Juan Rafael Ortiz

According to the New Mexico Marriages of Santa Fe and the Military Chapel of Our Lady of Light p. 119, Estefana married Juan Rafael Ortiz (born October 30, 1774) on April 27, 1801 in Santa Fe. She died on February 12, 1814 in Santa Fe. As mentioned above, family trees give a Josefa Delgado and not an Estefana. It is possible that her name was Josefa Estefana. But those trees also give that Josefa as married to Mr. Samaniego which was true of Fernando Delgado's daughter Maria Josefa.)

Juan Rafael first married Maria Loreta Baca, on August 28, 1796, who died shortly after Juan Felipe's birth on September 15, 1796. The entry in the Castrense Marriage Book reads: August 28, 1796, Juan Rafael Ortiz, son of Don Juan Ortiz deceased and Loreto Ribera, married Loreto Baca, daughter of Don Diego Antonio Baca and Doña Juana Garviso. Witnesses Diego Padilla and Manuel Gonzales.

He then married Estefana Delgado on April 27, 1804. She died February 12, 1814.  Children:

Maria Josefa Monica Dolores, born May 5, 1805, married José Francisco Baca on February 7, 1820. Children: They had children Maria Jesus Baca, Tomas de Jesus Baca, Ysabel del Refugio
Jose Manuel Apolinario, born July 25, 1807, married Ana Duran, April 9, 1824.
Jose Fernando, born May 20,1809, married Estefana Ortiz on September 8, 1839.
Francisco Antonio, born January 20, 1812 married Josefa Baca.
According to the
New Mexico Marriages of Santa Fe and the Military Chapel of Our Lady of Light p. 141, Juan Rafael Ortiz, widower of Doña Estefana Delgado married Gertrudis Pino, widow of Don Mariano Duran on February 14, 1816.


Maria Isabel, b 11/19/1816.
Ana Maria, b 1/13/1818.
Tomas Antonio, b 12/29/1819.
Jose Justo Damian, b 9/27/1821.
Maria Josefa, b 11/16/1822, married Pedro Armendaris.
Maria de la Luz Quirina, b 6/4/1824, married Miguel Pino, 12/31/1842.
Manuela, married Francisco Tomas Cabeza de Baca 6/10/1844.
Jose Eulogio, baptized 3/11/1825 

Manuela and José Francisco Baca y Terrus

According to the New Mexico Marriages of Santa Fe and the Military Chapel of Our Lady of Light p. 80, Josef Francisco Baca married Manuela Delgado on April 14, 1811.

The 1821 census for La Cienega (p. 92) shows José Francisco Baca, 40 years old, married to Manuela Delgado, 29 years, with two children, and Manuel Justo, age 7, and José de Esquipula, age 4, and three agregados: Guadalupe, 16, Juan, 12 and Maria Rita, 6.


Juan married Apolonia Rael. Child: Carlota Baca
José Andres
. Child Cleto
Maria Rita
(1827-1900). She married Nazario Gonzales y Garcia 1817-1904.

Their children were:

Manuela Gonzales (1851-1877) who married José Andres de la Luz Cabeza de Baca (1848-1924). Children Andres (perhaps husband), Tomas, Adelberto, Pancraico, Wilfredo, Manuel.
Cleofas Gonzales 1852- , who married Herman Pino. Children were Pedro, German, Miguel, José, Abel, Eloy, Elfido, Adela (married a Baca), Carmen (married a Viara), Trinidad, married a Montoya.
Francisco Gonzales 1853- (looks as if he married Agripina Delgado and had the children José N., Leopoldo, Nazario, Federico, Manuela (who married a Delgado --I think that this would be the wife of Emilio Delgado, the son of Felipe S. ), Cornelia.
Avelina Gonzales 1855-1999, who also married José Andres de la Luz Baca (1848-1924). Children Maria Rita (married Montoya). Concepcion (the elder), Francisco, Antonia (married Rael, Concepcion, the younger, Fulgencia, Andres
Carlota Gonzales (married Amado Baca). Children were Amado, Hortencia, Manuela, Maria de los Angeles (seems to have married a Baca and has a child Trinidad Baca), Refugio, Antonio, Amado.
Gertrudis (who married a Rael). Children Manuel, Gertrudes.

Much of this information is taken from a legal document in the NM State Archives concerning a land dispute.

According to the New Mexico Marriages of Santa Fe and the Military Chapel of Our Lady of Light p. 78, José Antonio Delgado, an Indian of the family of retired Captain Manuel Delgado married Maria Gertrudis Gonzales of the aforementioned family on August 28, 1806. According to the burials book of St Francis Parish, Santa Fe (LDS tape 0016906), José Antonio Delgado, husband of Gertrudis Gonzales was buried on October 25, 1817.

According to New Mexico Marriages of Santa Fe and the Military Chapel of Our Lady of Light page 81 on September 13, 1813, Francisco Flores married Maria (n.s.), an Indian of the family of Capitan Don Manuel Delgado. According to the burials book of St Francis Parish, Santa Fe (LDS tape 0016906), Francisco Flores, married to Encarnacion Delgado was buried on June 11, 1823.

My grandmother always said that the Delgados adopted Indians and gave them the family name.